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Every Machine Tool Is A Compromise With Many Variations

Two primary ways to make metal chips are with milling and turning machine tools. Milling is when the tool turns and the part is fixed.

Examples of Machine Tool Variations

Milling Include

  1. Vertical Knee Mills
  2. Vertical Jig Mills
  3. Vertical Drilling Machines
  4. Vertical Bed Mills
  5. Vertical Bridge Mills
  6. Vertical Planer Mills

Vertical refers to the spindle shaft perpendicular to the ground. Typical C frame vertical machining centers are basically vertical bed mills.
Horizontal machining centers or mills include Horizontal bed mills, Horizontal boring mills, Horizontal gun drills.

Turning has the tool fixed and the part spinning. Examples of turning are lathes where the part is held in a chuck or collet and spins. The tool is fixed on a multi axis slide way and positioned to remove a thin layer of material from the spinning piece or part. 

Lathes are vertical or horizontal depending on the orientation of the spindle to the ground. Turret lathes refer to the tool changer. Multi axis lathes may have additional axes for off center positioning or live rotary tools. Additionally rotary axes for positioning the spindle rather than spinning. Machine tools follow the Cartesian coordinate system. Typical types are Horizontal lathe with a chuck and tail stock to support the piece or part. Vertical lathes with a bridge or arm to support the cutting tools. Machine tool utilize turrets and tool changers or ATC ( automatic tool changers) to switch tools and perform different operations.

Machine tools and manual machine tools or CNC ( computer numerically controlled ) controlled machine tools. Tables or pallets may be changed manually or automatically APC (automatic pallet changer) for greater productivity.

Saws are also chip making. Vertical saws include band saws, vertical cold saws, vertical column saws.